Sunday, December 03, 2006

History and literature

By the Middle Ages Boudica was forgotten. She makes no appearance in Bede, the Historia Brittonum, the Mabinogion or Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain. But the rediscovery of the works of Tacitus during the Renaissance allowed Polydore Virgil to reintroduce her into British history as "Voadicea" in 1534. Raphael Holinshed also included her story in his Chronicles (1577), based on Tacitus and Dio, and inspired Shakespeare's younger contemporaries Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher to write a play, Bonduca, in 1610. William Cowper wrote a popular poem, Boadicea, an ode, in 1782.

It was in the Victorian era that Boudica's fame took on legendary proportions. Queen Victoria was seen as her "namesake". Victoria's Poet Laureate, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, wrote a poem, Boadicea, and ships were named after her. A great bronze statue of Boudica in her war chariot (furnished with scythes after Persian fashion), together with her daughters, was commissioned by Prince Albert and executed by Thomas Thornycroft. It was completed in 1905 and stands next to Westminster Bridge and the Houses of Parliament, with the following lines from Cowper's poem, referring to the British Empire:

Regions Caesar never knew
Thy posterity shall sway.
Ironically, the great anti-imperialist rebel was now identified with the head of the British Empire


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Blogger AndrewJohnson said...

Abel's essay, Ueber den Gegensinn der Urworter (1884, the following examples of such words in England are given: gleam--gloom; to lock--loch; down--The Downs; to step--to stop.. The crowd, however, quickly procured and raised a long ladder.. But I oughter have seven.. He felt suddenly that he must not lose sight of her.. He did not seem to grow old, and he was one of those who never appear to have been very young. From this on he would drive a mule or an automobile.. Ah, Poopoo! glad to see you.. But where were they? Where is yours? Tucked in your best-man's pocket; deposited in his desk--or washed to a pulp in his white waistcoat (if white waistcoats be the fashion of the hour), washed out of existence--can you tell where it is? Can you--unless you are one of those people who frame that interesting document and hang it upon their drawing-room walls? Mr.. The postmark showed that it was from New York.. to publish next year.. SMITE! POST.. The analysis of obscure and intricate dreams discloses something very similar; the dream scene again pictures as realized some desire which regularly proceeds from the dream ideas, but the picture is unrecognizable, and is only cleared up in the analysis.. The dream creates a form of psychical release for the wish which is either suppressed or formed by the aid of repression, inasmuch as it presents it as realized.. As the swish of skirts marked the passage of the Van Kamps up the wide hall stairway, the other party swept into the room.. This is probably due to certain relations of energy into which we have no insight.. The medical profession is justly conservative.. Let us recapitulate by saying that we call such a stream of thought a foreconscious one, that we believe it to be perfectly correct, and that it may just as well be a more neglected one or an interrupted and suppressed one.. Now, if you think fit to sell me those spectacles, I will pay you the largest market price for glasses.. These unconscious wishes establish for all subsequent psychic efforts a compulsion to which they have to submit and which they must strive if possible to divert from its course and direct to higher aims.. He'll lose his wind! Mr.

9:15 PM  

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